There's a magical place where a five hour layover can turn into a vacation in its own right and its name is Amsterdam. The Dutch Capital might be Holland's most populous city, but its density and proximity to the airport make it a prime candidate for a quick jaunt into the city.
By train it's a quick 17 minute journey from the airport to Amsterdam city center. If you have enough time to visit multiple museums, it might be worthwhile to buy a day pass. Otherwise, pick up a one way ticket to Amsterdam Centraal for 5 euros. (Warning: the airport train station is pretty confusing. Luckily, Dutch people are also very helpful and speak impeccable English.)
Chances are you're just getting in on an overnight flight, so you're going to want to find a coffee shop. No. Not that kind of coffee shop. You do have a connecting flight to make after all. Besides, Amsterdam has a lot more to offer than just legal weed and red light districts. To try some locally roasted coffee check out White Label Coffee. For a slightly more refined atmosphere with some serious food pairings, go to Scandinavian Embassy.
Sorry, but you don't have enough time to see the Anne Frank house. The queue starts early and never goes away- even on weekdays. Instead opt to visit the Rijksmuseum or the Van Gogh Museum. But don't get too carried away, you want to leave some time for strolling along the canals while eating some Dutch fries with mayo and peanut sauce- a local favorite.
You never know, your layover in Amsterdam might just inspire the location of your next vacation.